From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cyrenaica ( /saɪrɨˈneɪ.ɨkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ə-kə; Greek: Κυρηναϊκή, after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقة Barqah; Berber: Berqa) is the historical name of the eastern region in Libya, which self-declared autonomy. In a tribal meeting the National Federal Bloc party declared Cyrenaica as self-autonomous region, but no actual authority has been observed on the ground, as the National Transitional Council still the defacto authority in all of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis in antiquity, it was part of the Creta et Cyrenaica province during the Roman period, later divided in Libia Pentapolis and Libia Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca.
Cyrenaica was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 through 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 through 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya from 1951 through 1963. In a wider sense, which is still used, Cyrenaica is composed
of all of the eastern part of Libya, including the Kufra District. Cyrenaica is adjacent to Tripolitania in the northwest and Fezzan in the southwest. The region that used to be Cyrenaica officially through 1963 is now divided up into
several shabiyat, the administrative divisions of Libya.
Cyrenaica was the birthplace of the Libyan civil war, and was largely under the control of the National Transitional Council for most of the war; their headquarters were in Benghazi.
Cyrenaica Barqa / Barka
Littorio Palace in Benghazi was the seat of the Cyrenaican
Main article: Modern history of Libya
The Italians occupied Cyrenaica during the Italo-Turkish War in 1911 and declared it an Italian protectorate on 15 October 1912. Three days later, the Ottoman Empire officially ceded the province to the Kingdom of Italy. On 17 May 1919, Cyrenaica was established as an Italian colony, and, on 25 October 1920, the Italian government recognized Sheikh Sidi Idriss as the leader of the Senussi, who was granted the rank of Emir until in 1929. In that year, Italy "derecognized" him and the Senussi. On 1 January 1934, Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan were united as the Italian colony of Libya.
The Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch as a form of an imperial triumphal arch at the border between Cyrenaica and Tripolitani near the coast.
There was heavy fighting in Cyrenaica during World War II between the Allies and the Italian Army and the Nazi German Afrika Korps. In late 1942, the armed forces of the British Empire overran Cyrenaica, and the United Kingdom administered all of Libya through 1951, when the Kingdom of Libya was established and granted independence.
Kingdom of Libya
In 1949, Idris as-Senussi, with British backing, proclaimed Cyrenaica as an independent emirate called the Emirate of Cyrenaica. This emirate soon became part of the Kingdom of Libya when it was established and an independent kingdom on 24 December 1951, with Idris as-Senussi becoming King Idris I.
Subdivisions of Libya and Districts of Libya
See also: List of cities in Libya, Map of Libya
Historically the area of Libya was considered three provinces (or states), Tripolitania in the northwest, Barka (Cyrenaica) in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. It was the conquest by Italy in the Italo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Under the Italians Libya, in 1934, was divided into four provinces and one territory (in the south): Tripoli, Misrata, Benghazi, Bayda, and the Territory of the Libyan Sahara.
After independence, Libya was divided into three governorates (muhafazat) and then in 1963 into ten governorates. The governorates were legally abolished in February 1975, and nine "control bureaus" were set up to deal directly with the nine areas, respectively: education, health, housing, social services, labor, agricultural services,
communications, financial services, and economy, each under their own ministry. However, the courts and some other agencies continued to operate as if the governorate structure were still in place. In 1983 Libya was split into
forty-six districts (baladiyat), then in 1987 into twenty-five. In 1995, Libya was divided into thirteen districts (shabiyah), in 1998 into twenty-six districts, and in 2001 into thirty-two districts. These were then further rearranged into twenty-two districts in 2007: